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NFP Science Bibliography Addendum

The following bibliography contains articles on Natural Family Planning (NFP) and related topics.  The articles were obtained from those listed in the following indices; Medline; the Commutative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Psychological indices from June 1994 through June 2000.  For those interested in obtaining a bibliography that has NFP and related articles previous to those dates, see Natural Family Planning Bibliography, compiled by Richard J. Fehring, DNSc, RN and  Robert Kambic, MSH.  This bibliography referenced articles from 1966 through June, 1994.  Both resources can be obtained from the Diocesan Development Program for NFP.


  • Ovulation and the Menstrual Cycle
    (Articles that present scientific evidence to help understand the natural methods of  family planning and on new technology that improves on the detection and prediction of the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle.)

This bibliography has been compiled by Richard J. Fehring, DNSc, RN, with the assistance of Beth Van Enkenvoort, BSN, RN, College of Nursing, Marquette University.  It may be reproduced in whole or part.  Reprints should include the following citation:  Diocesan Development Program for NFP, National Conference of Catholic Bishops, 3211 4th St., N.E., Washington, D.C.  20017; 202-541-3240; FAX 202-541-3054; E-mail; Web Site

I. Natural Family Planning Methods

Fonte, D.R. (1997).  The basics of natural family planning. Advance for Nurse Practitioners, 5(3), 36-42.

Geerling, J.H. (1995).  Natural family planning.  American Family Physician, 52(6), 1749-1758.

Gupta, T.K. (1996).  Natural family planning—better prospect of contraception.  Natural Family Planning, 50(3), 72-76.

Kennedy, W. (1995).  Natural family planning.  The Professional Medical Assistant, 28(1), 13-14.

Kmietowicz, Z. (1997).  Deciding on a method of natural family planning.  Nurse Prescriber, 2(11), 30-31.

Norman, C.  (1995).  Does nature know best?  Background and mechanisms of natural family planning.  Midwives, 85-88.

Pyper, C.M. (1997).  Fertility awareness and natural family planning.  The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 1(2), 131-146.

Ryder, B.,  & Campbell, H.  (1995).  Natural family planning in the 1990s.  The Lancet, 346, 233-234.

Trent, A.J., & Clark, K. (1997).  What nurses should know about natural family planning.  Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 26(6), 643-648.

Winfield, J. (1996).  Natural family planning.  Practice Nurse, 12(4), 255-258.

II. Effectiveness of Natural Family Planning Methods

Bonnar, J., Flynn, A., Freundl, G., Kirkman, R., Royston, R., & Snowden, R.  (1999).  Personal hormone monitoring for contraception.  The British Journal of Family Planning, 24,128-134. 

De Leizaola-Cordonnier, A.  (1995).  Natural family planning effectiveness in Belgium. Advances In Contraception, 11, 165-172.

Flynn, A.M., Collins, W.P., Royston, P., Barbato, M., Mena-Gonzalez, P., & Alliende, M.E. (1997).  Volumetric self-sampling of cervicovaginal fluid to determine potential fertility: A multicentre preeffectiveness study of the Rovumeter. Human  Reproduction, 12(8), 1826-1831.

Frank-Herrmann, P., Freundl, G., Gnoth, C., Godehardt, E., Kunert, J., Baur, S., & Sottong, U.  (1997).  Natural family planning with and without barrier method use in the fertile phase: Efficacy in relation to sexual behavior: A German prospective long-term study.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 179-189.

Freundl, G., Frank-Herrmann, P., Godehardt, E., Klemm, R., & Bachhofer, M.  (1998). Retrospective clinical trial of contraceptive effectiveness of the electronic fertility  indicator Ladycomp/Babycomp.  Advances in Contraception, 14(2), 97-108.

Freundel, G., Flynn, A., Frank-Hermann, P., & Gnoth, C.  (1999).  European multicenter study  of natural family planning (1989-1995): efficacy and drop-out.  The European Natural Family Planning Study Groups.  Advances in Contraception, 15(1),69-83.

Guida, M., Tommaselli, G.A., Pellicano, M., Palomba, S., & Nappi, C. (1997).  An overview on the effectiveness of natural family planning.  Gynecological Endocrinology, 11 (3), 203-219.

Hilgers, T.W., & Stanford, J.B. (1998).  Creighton model naproeducation technology for avoiding pregnancy-use effectiveness.  The Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 43,495-502.

Howard, M.P. & Stanford, J.B. (1999).  Pregnancy probabilities during use of the Creighton model of FertilityCareTM System.  Archives of Family Medicine, 8(5), 391-402.

Indian Council of Medical Research Task Force on Natural Family Planning. (1996).  Field trial of billings ovulation method of natural family planning.  Contraception, 53(2),  69-74.

Kambic, R.T., & Lamprecht, V.  (1996).  Calendar rhythm efficacy: A review.  Advances in Contraception,  12(2),  123-128.

Lamprecht, V., & Trussell, J.  (1997).  Natural family planning effectiveness: Evaluating published reports.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 155-165.

Weinberg, C.R., & Zhou, H.  (1997).  Model-based approaches to studying fertility and contraceptive efficacy.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 97-103.

III. Ovulation and the Menstrual Cycle

Arevalo, M., Sinai, I., & Jennings, V.  (1999).  A fixed formula to define the fertile window of the menstrual cycle as the basis of a simple method of natural family planning. Contraception, 60, 357-360.

Blackwell, L.F., Brown, J.B., & Cooke, D.  (1998).  Definition of the potentially fertile period from urinary steroid excretion rates.  Part II.  A threshold value for pregnanediol glucuronide as a marker for the end of the potentially fertile period in the human menstrual cycle.  Steroids, 63,  5-13.

Braat, D.D., Smeen, J., & Manger, A.P., et al. (1998).  Saliva test as ovulation predictor.  Lancet, 352, 1283-1284.

Burkhart, M.C., de Mazariegos, L., Salazar, S., & Hess, T.  (1999).  Incidence of irregular cycles among Mayan women who reported having regular cycles: implications for fertility awareness methods.  Contraception, 59, 271-275.

Cavero, C. (1995).  Using an ovarian monitor as an adjunct to natural family planning.  Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 40(3), 269-276.

Dunson, D.B., Baird, D.D., Wilcox, A.J., & Weinberg, C.R. (1999).  Day-specific probabilities of clinical pregnancy based on two studies with imperfect measures of ovulation.  Human Reproduction, 14(7), 1835-1839.

Fehring, R.J. (1996).  A comparison of the ovulation method with the Cue ovulation predictor in determining the fertile period.  Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 8(10), 461-466.

Fehring, R.J., & Gaska, N.  (1998).  Evaluation of the Lady Free biotester in determining the  fertile period.  Contraception, 57(5), 325-328.

Fehring, R.J., & Schlaff, W.D. (1998).  Accuracy of the Ovulon fertility monitor to predict and detect ovulation.  Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 43(2), 117-120.

Ferreira-Poblete, A.  (1997).  The probability of conception on different days of the cycle with respect to ovulation: An overview.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 83-95.

Freundl, G., Bremme, M., Frank-Herrmann, P., Baur, S., Godehardt, E., & Sottong, U. (1996).  The Cue fertility monitor compared to ultrasound and Lh peak measurements for  fertile time ovulation detection.  Advances in Contraception, 12(2), 111-121.

Freundl, G., Frank-Herrmann, P., & Bremme, M. (1998).  Results of an efficacy-finding study (efs) with the computer-thermometer Cyclotest 2 plus containing 207 cycles.  Advances in Contraception, 14(4), 201-207.

Guida, M., Tommaselli, G.A., Palomba, S., Pellicano, M., Moccia, G., Di Carlo, C., & Nappi, C. (1999).  Efficacy of methods for determining ovulation in a natural family planning program.  Fertility and Sterility, 72(5), 900-904.

Katz, D.F., Slade, D.A., & Nakajima, S.T. (1997).  Analysis of pre-ovulatory changes in the cervical mucus hydration and sperm penetrability.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 143-151.

Martinez, A.R. (1997).  Prediction and detection of the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle: An overview.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 131-138.

Masarotto, G., & Romualdi, C. (1997).  Probability of conception on different days of the menstrual cycle: An ongoing exercise.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 105-115.

Moreno, J.E., Khan-Dawood, F.S., & Goldzieher, J.W. (1997).  Natural family planning: Suitability of the Cue method for defining the time of ovulation.  Contraception, 55(4), 233-237.

Odeblad, E.  (1997).  Cervical mucus and their functions.  Journal of the Irish Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, 26, 27-32.

Sinai, I., Jennings, V., & Arevalo, M. (1999).  The twoday algorithm: A new algorithm to identify the fertile time of the menstrual cycle.  Contraception, 60, 65-70.

Wilcox, A.J., Weinberg, C.R., & Baird, D.D. (1995).  Timing of sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation.  Effects on the probability of conception, survival of the pregnancy, and  sex of the baby.  The New England Journal of Medicine,  333, 1517-1521.

IV.      Scientific Issues in Natural Family Planning

Barbato, M., Bitto, A., Gray, R.H., Simpson, J.L., Queenan, J.T., Kambic, R.T., Perez, A., Mena, P., Pardo, F., Stevenson, W., Tagliabue, G., Jennings, V., & Li, C. (1997).  Effects of  timing of conception on birth weight and preterm delivery of natural family  planning users.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 215-228.

Bitto, A., Gray, R.H., Simpson, J.L., Queenan, J.T., Kambic, R.T., Perez, A., Mena, P., Barbato, M., Li, C., & Jennings, V. (1997).  Adverse outcomes of planned and unplanned  pregnancies among users of natural family planning: A prospective study.  American Journal of Public Health, 87(3), 338-343.

Castilla, E.E., Lopez-Camelo, J.S., da Graca Dutra, M., Queenan, J.T., Simson, J.L., & NFP-ECLAMC Group.  (1997).  The frequency and spectrum of congenital anomalies in  natural family planning users in South America: No increase in a case-control study.  Advances in Contraception, 13(4), 395-404.

Gray, R.H., Simpson, J.L., Bitto, A.C., Queenan, J.T., Li, C., Kambic, R.T., Perez, A., Mena, P., Barbato, M., Stevenson, W., & Jennings, V. (1998).  Sex ratio associated with timing of insemination and length of follicular phase in planned and unplanned pregnancies during use of natural family planning.  Human Reproduction, 13(5), 1397-1400.

Mena, P., Bitto, A., Barbato, M., Perez, A., Gray, R.H., Simpson, J.L., Queenan, J.T., Kambic, R.T., Pardo, F., Stevenson, W., Tagliabue, G., Jennings, V., & Li, C. (1997).  Pregnancy complications in natural family planning users.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3),  229-237.

Paulsen, C.A., Berman, N.G., & Wang, C. (1997).  Is male reproductive health at risk? Longitudinal semen analysis studies.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 119-121.

Simpson, J.L., Gray, R.H., Perez, A., Mena, P., Barbato, M., Castilla, E.E., Kambic, R.T., Pardo, F., Tagliabue, G., Stephenson, W.S., Bitto, A., Li, C., Jennings, V.H., Spieler, J.M., & Queenan, J.T.  (1997).  Pregnancy outcome in natural family planning users: Cohort and case-control studies evaluating safety.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 201-214.

Simpson, J.L., Gray, R.H., Queenan, J.T., Barbato, M., Perez, A., Mena, P., Kambic, R.T., Pardo, F., Stevenson, W., Li, C., & Jennings, V. (1996).  Further evidence that infection is an infrequent cause of first trimester spontaneous abortion.  Human Reproduction, 11(9), 2058-2060.

Weinberg, C., Baird, D., & Wilcox, A.  (1995).  The sex of the baby may be related to the length of the follicular phase in the conception cycle.  Human Reproduction, 10, 304-307.

Wilcox, A.J., Weinberg, C.R., & Baird, D.D.  (1998).  Post-ovulatory aging of the human oocyte and embryo failure. Human Reproduction, 13, 394-397.

Zinaman, M.J., & Katz, D.F. (1997).  Incidence and implications of altered semen quality on family planning.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 123-128.

V.      Breastfeeding and Natural Family Planning

Cooney, K.A., Nyirabukeye, T., Labbok, M.H., Hoser, P.H., & Ballard, E. (1996).  An  assessment of the nine-month lactational amenorrhea method (mama-9) in Rwanda.  Studies in Family Planning, 27(3), 162-171.

Dewey, K.G., Cohen, R.J., & Rivera, L.R., et al.  (1997).  Effects of age at introduction of complementary foods to breast-fed infants on duration of lactational amenorrhea in Honduran women.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65, 1403-1409.

France, M. (1996).  A study of the lactational amenorrhea method of family planning in New Zealand women.  New Zealand Medical Journal, 109, 189-191.   

Kennedy, K.I., Labbok, M.H., Van Look, P.F.A.  (1996).  Consensus statement- lactational  amenorrhea method for family planning.  International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 54, 55-57.

Kazi, A., Kennedy, Visness, C.M., & Khan, T.  (1995).  Effectiveness of lactational amenorrhea method in Pakistan. Fertility and Sterility, 64, 717-723.

Labbok, M.H., Hight-Laukaren, V., Peterson, A.E., Fletcher, V., von Hertzen, H., & Van Look, P.F.A.  (1997).  Multicenter study of the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM): I. Efficacy duration and implications for clinical application.  Contraception, 55,  327-336. 

Ramos, R.,  Kennedy, K.I., & Visness, C.M.  (1996).  Effectiveness of lactational amenorrhea in prevention of pregnancy in Manila, the Philippines: a non-comparative  prospective trial.  British Medical Journal, 313, 909-912.

Valdes, V., Pugin, E., Labbok, M.H., Perez, A., Catalan, S., Aravena, R., & Adler, M.R. (1995).  The effects on professional practices of a three-day course on breastfeeding.  Journal              of Human Lactation, 11(3),  185-190.

Visness, C.M., & Kennedy, K.I. (1997).  The frequency of coitus during breastfeeding.  Birth, 24(4), 253-257.

Visness, C.M., Kennedy, K.I., & Ramos, R.  (1997).  The duration and character of postpartum bleeding among breast-feeding women.  Obstetrics and Gynecology,  89, 159-163.

World Health Organization Task Force on Methods for the Natural Regulation of Fertility. (1998).  The World Health Organization multinational study of breast-feeding and lactational amenorrhea. I.  Description of infant feeding patterns and the return of menses.  Fertility and Sterility, 70, 448-60.

World Health Organization Task Force on Methods for the Natural Regulation of Fertility. (1998).  The World Health Organization multinational study of breast-feeding and lactational amenorrhea. II.  Factors associated with the length of amenorrhea.  Fertility and Sterility, 70, 461-471.

World Health Organization Task Force on Methods for the Natural Regulation of Fertility. (1999).  The World Health Organization multinational study of breast-feeding and lactational amenorrhea. III.  Pregnancy during breastfeeding. Fertility and Sterility,  72, 431-440.

World Health Organization Task Force on Methods for the Natural Regulation of Fertility. (1999).  The World Health Organization multinational study of breast-feeding and lactational amenorrhea. IV.  Postpartum bleeding and lochia in breast-feeding women.  Fertility and Sterility, 72, 441-447.

VI.      Psycho/Social/Spiritual Aspects of Natural Family Planning

Allen, K.  (1995).  Are women really to blame for failure in natural methods of birth control?  Alternative Health International, 1(1), 10-24.

Andreasen, A.R.  (1997).  Changing behavior: A challenge for reproductive health  awareness.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 351-353.

Arevalo, M.  (1997).  Expanding the availability and improving delivery of natural family planning services and fertility awareness education: Providers' perspectives.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 275-281.

Aumack-Yee, K.  (1997).  Body/self awareness and interpersonal communications: Fundamental components of reproductive health awareness.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 319-323.

Blake, D., Smith, D., Bargiacchi, A., France, M., & Gudex, G.  (1997).  Fertility awareness in women attending a fertility clinic.  The Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 37(3), 350-352.

Bonnar, J., Lamprecht, V., & O'Conner, E.  (1997).  Alternatives to vaginal intercourse practiced during the fertile time among calendar method users in Ireland.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3),173-177.

France, M., France, J., & Townend, K.  (1997).  Natural family planning in New Zealand:  A  study of continuation rates and characteristic users.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 191-198.

Girotto, S., Del Zotti, F., Baruchello, M., Gottardi, G., Valente, M., Battagia, A., Rosa, B.,  Fedrizzi, P., Campanella, M., Zumerle, M., & Bressan, F.  (1997).  The behavior of  Italian family physicians regarding the health problems of women and, in particular, family planning (both contraception and nfp).  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 283-293.

Gnoth, C., Frank-Herman, P., Freundl, G., Kunert, J., & Godehardt, E.  (1995).  Sexual behavior of natural family planning users in Germany and its changes over time.  Advances in Contraception, 11, 173-185.

Kirkman, R.J.E. (1997).  Approaches for incorporating ovulation detection devices and home kits into learning nfp—implications for service delivery.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 269-272.

Marshall, M., Jennings, V., & Cachan, J. (1997).  Reproductive health awareness: An integrated approach to obtaining a high quality of health.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 313-318.

Odeens, B.J.  (1999).  Women's satisfaction with birth control: a population survey of physical and psychological effects of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, condoms, natural family planning, and sterilization among 1466 women.  Contraception, 59, 277-286.

Stanford, J.B., & Smith, K.R. (2000).  Characteristics of women associated with continuing instruction in the Creighton Model FertilityCareTM System.  Contraception, 61, 121-129. 

Stanford, J.B., Lemaire, J.C., & Fox, A. (1994).  Interest in natural family planning among female family practice patients. Family Practice Research Journal, 14(3), 237-249.

Stanford, J.B., Lemaire, J.C., & Thurman, P.B. (1998).  Women's interest in natural family planning.  The Journal of Family Practice, 46(1), 65-71.

Stanford, J.B., Thurman, P.B., & Lemaire, J.S., (1999).  Physicians' knowledge and practice regarding natural family planning.  Obstetrics and Gynecology, 94.

VII.    Natural Family Planning Programming

Cachan, J., & Marshall, M. (1997).  Implementing reproductive health awareness:  Progress to date.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 363-371.

Diaz, M.  (1997).  Gender, sexuality and communication issues that constitute barriers to the use of natural family planning and other fertility awareness-based methods.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 303-309.

France, M. (1997).  The benefits and barriers associated with a national natural family planning service: The New Zealand experience.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 295-302.

Girotto, S., Zanichelli, A., Stevanella, G.C., Fattorini, G., Santi, L., Chiossi, D., Rotzer, J. (1997).  Comparing a public and private sector nfp program: implications for nfp expansion.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 255-260.

Huezo, C. (1997).  Factors to address when periodic abstinence is offered by multi-method family planning programs. Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 261-267.

Infantado, R.B. (1997).  Main-streaming nfp into the department of health of the Phillipines: Opportunities and challenges. Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 249-254.

Kambic, R.T., & Notare, T. (1994).  Roman Catholic church-sponsored natural family planning services in the United States.  Advances in Contraception, 10(20, 85-92.

Pyper, C.  (1997).  Reproductive health awareness: An important dimension to be integrated into existing sexual and reproductive health programs.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 331-338.

Schubert, J., Pillai, G., & Thorndahl, R.  (1997).  Breaking the mold: Expanding options for reproductive health awareness: The CARE experience.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3),  355-361.

Seidman, M.  (1997).  Requirements for nfp service delivery: An overview.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 241-247.

Spicehandler, J. (1997).  Issues to consider in operationalizing reproductive health.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 345-350.

Wilson, A. (1997).  The reproductive health awareness (rha) model: A qualitative perspective.  Advances in Contraception, 13(2/3), 339-342.

VIII.  Miscellaneous Publications on NFP

Billings, E.L & Billings, J.J.  (1997).  Teaching the Billings Ovulation method.  Variations of the Cycle and Reproductive Health.  Melbourne, Australia: Ovulation Method Research & Reference Centre of Australia.

Billings, E. & Westmore, A.  (1997).  The Billings Method. Melbourne Australia: Anne O'Donovan Pty Ltd.

Club, E. & Knight, J.,  (1997).  Fertility.  A Comprehensive Guide to Natural Family Planning.  Trowbridge, England: Redwood Books.

Colombo, B.  (1999).  An update on methods of fertility control with particular reference to natural regulation.  In Human Fertility Regulation Demographic and Statistical Aspects. Girotto, S. & Bressan, F. Eds.  Verona, Italy: Edizioni Libreria Cortina Verona.

Hilgers, T.W.  (1995).  The Scientific Foundations of the Ovulation Method.  Omaha, Nebraska: Pope Paul VI Institute Press.

Hilgers, T.W.  (1996).  The Creighton Model NaProEducation System.  Omaha, Nebraska: Pope Paul VI Institute Press.

Huneger, R.J. & Fuller, R.  (1997).  A Couple's Guide to Fertility. Portland, Oregon: Northwest Family Services.

Kambic, Robert T.  (1999).  The Effectiveness of Natural Family Planning Methods for Birth Spacing: A Comprehensive Review.  In Human Fertility Regulation Demographic and Statistical Aspects. Girotto, S. & Bressan, F. Eds.  Verona, Italy: Edizioni Libreria Cortina Verona.

Kippley, J.  (1996).  The Art of Natural Family Planning.  Cincinnati, Ohio: The Couple to Couple League, International.

Kippley, S.  (1999).  Breastfeeding and Natural Child Spacing. Fourth edition.  Cincinnati, Ohio: The Couple to Couple League.

Klaus, H. (1995).  Natural Family Planning: A Review.  Bethesda, Maryland: Natural Family Planning Center of Washington, D.C.

Nofziger, M.  (1998).  Signs of Fertility, the Personal Science of Natural Birth Control.  Deatsville, Alabama: MND Publishing.

Weschler, T.  (1995).  Taking Charge of Your Fertility.  New York, NY: Harpers Collins.

Wilson, M. A.  (1996).  Love & Family, Raising a Traditional Family in a Secular World.  San  Francisco, California: Ignatius Press.

Wilson, M.A.  (1998).  Love & Fertility.  Dunkirk, MD: Family of the Americas Foundation.

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